Trends in Resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter Species in U.S. Hospitalized Patients

Trends in antimicrobial resistance help inform infection control efforts. Gupta, et al. (2019) examined trends in resistance for Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. from 2013 to 2017 in hospitalized U.S. patients.

The researchers analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility of non-duplicate isolates in hospitalized patients (not limited to hospital-acquired infections) in the U.S. BD Insights Research Database. Resistance profiles of interest were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, multidrug-resistant (MDR), and carbapenem-nonsusceptible (Carb-NS) phenotypes of Enterobacteriaceae, and MDR and Carb-NS Acinetobacter spp. Time series models were used to evaluate the patterns of resistance trends in rate per 100 hospital admissions and proportion per isolates tested.

More than 1 million Enterobacteriaceae isolates were obtained from 411 hospitals; 12.05% were ESBL, 1.21% Carb-NS, and 7.08% MDR. Urine was the most common source. For Acinetobacter spp. (n = 19,325), 37.48% were Carb-NS, 47.66% were MDR, and the most common source was skin/wound cultures. Trend analyses showed that the rates of ESBL and Carb-NS Enterobacteriaceae per 100 hospital admissions increased significantly between 2013 and 2017. Rates of MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Carb-NS and MDR Acinetobacter spp. decreased during this time period. Trends in proportions of resistant isolates generally mirrored trends in rates per 100 hospital admissions. MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Carb-NS and MDR Acinetobacter spp. were more common in winter than summer.

In this large-scale study of patients in U.S. hospitals, rates of ESBL and Carb-NS Enterobacteriaceae per 100 hospital admissions increased between 2013 and 2017. MDR Enterobacteriaceae and MDR and Carb-NS Acinetobacter spp. isolates decreased over this period. These data support continuing infection control and stewardship efforts and the development of new therapeutic options.

Gupta V, et al. Trends in resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter species in hospitalized patients in the United States: 2013–2017. BMC Infectious Diseases. Vol. 19, No. 742. 2019.

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