Central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) remain a critical and possibly fatal outcome of hospitalization. Use of central venous catheter (CVC) bundles can considerably reduce CLABSI rates in hospitalized patients. However, despite widespread adoption of these bundles in hospitals worldwide, CLABSIs still remain prevalent. The aim of the present study by Pitiriga, et al. (2022) was to determine whether longer duration of CVCs placement is related to CLABSIs in hospitalized adults, despite the implementation of preventive bundles. Also to analyze CLABSI pathogens distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles in different time intervals of catheterization.
A retrospective study was performed among hospitalized patients who had a CVC inserted during a 24-month period (May 2017–May 2019) and developed CLABSIs. To evaluate the association between CVC placement duration and CLABSI events, the researchers categorized events into three groups, each representing a 10-day time interval.
A total of 59 CLABSI cases were identified among 9,774 catheter/days. The CLABSI incidence rate per 1,000 catheter/days was 4.80 for duration of catheterization up to 10 days, 5.92 for duration of 11–20 days, and 8.64 for duration > 20 days (p = 0.007). The CLABSI incidence rate per 1,000 catheter/days due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among the three groups was 2.62 for catheter duration of up to 10 days, 3.83 for 11–20 days, and 3.46 for > 20 days (p = 0.14). Among CLABSIs, the most common microorganism identified was multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, which accounted for 27.1% of the cases. There was no significant difference in the type of CLABSI pathogens isolated among the 3 groups.
The researchers note, "Our findings suggest that duration of CVC placement remains an important risk factor for CLABSIs in hospitalized patients, even after the adoption of prevention bundles. The high prevalence of MDROs in our setting reflects the local epidemiology, highlighting a significant threat of urgent public health concern."
Reference: Pitiriga V, et al. Duration of central venous catheter placement and central line-associated bloodstream infections after the adoption of prevention bundles: a two-year retrospective study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control. Vol. 11, article number 96 (2022).