Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are among the most common infections in the U.S. Only a few studies, however, describe the impact of uUTIs from the patient perspective. Thompson, et al. (2023) conducted a cross-sectional online survey of U.S. women aged ≥18 years, assessing uUTI burden regarding activity impairment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), workplace productivity, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs. Participants who self-reported a uUTI in the prior 60 days treated with ≥1 oral antibiotic were included.
Activity impairment was assessed with the Activity Impairment Assessment scale. HRQoL was assessed using a modified Short Form 36 (SF-36). Direct costs were sum of out-of-pocket expenditures and monetized HRU; indirect costs were calculated using Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI). Participants were stratified by uUTI recurrence, number of prescribed antibiotics for recent uUTI and therapy appropriateness (1 first-line/1 second-line/multiple antibiotics). Multivariable regression analysis assessed the relationship between stratifications and outcomes while controlling for demographic/clinical characteristics. Propensity score matching was used to compare participants to a matched population from the 2020 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS), to control for any impact of COVID-19 on responses.
Among 375 participants, impaired activities included sexual intercourse (66.9%), sleep (60.8%) and exercise (52.3%). HRQoL was worse (p<0.0001) than the NHWS population (46.4 vs. 51.3 [physical component score]; 40.0 vs. 46.9 [mental component score]; 0.63 vs. 0.72 [health utility index]). All included WPAI assessments were worse for uUTI cohort vs. NHWS (p<0.0001). Adjusted direct costs were higher for participants receiving 2 vs. 1 antibiotic ($2090 vs. $776; p<0.0001) and receiving multiple antibiotics vs. 1 first-line ($1642 vs. $875; p = 0.002). Recurrent uUTI was associated with increased activity impairment, worse HRQoL, and costs vs. non-recurrent.
The researchers conclude that uUTIs were associated with increased activity impairment, worse productivity, and reduced HRQoL. Higher costs were found vs. a matched population.
Reference: Thompson J, et al. Activity impairment, health-related quality of life, productivity, and self-reported resource use and associated costs of uncomplicated urinary tract infection among women in the United States. PLOS. Feb. 1, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277728