COVID-19 Vaccine Intentions Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Samples of Healthcare Workers, General Public

Researchers investigated COVID-19 vaccine intentions among racially and ethnically diverse samples of health workers and the general population in the San Francisco Bay area.

As Grumbach, et al. (2021) explain, "Surveys have demonstrated racial differences in the public’s willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine but have not directly compared vaccine intentions among health workers and the general public. We investigated COVID-19 vaccine intentions among racially and ethnically diverse samples of health workers and the general population."

The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey from Nov. 27, 2020 to Jan. 15, 2021, nested within two longitudinal cohort studies of prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in six San Francisco Bay Area counties. The general population cohort comprised 3935 community-residing adults sampled from randomly selected households, and the medical center employee cohort comprised 2501 employees of three large medical centers, who volunteered for biweekly to monthly COVID-19 testing. The main outcome measure was likeliness of vaccine uptake, derived from two survey items: (1) “How likely are you to get an approved COVID-19 vaccine when it becomes available?” (using a 1-7 Likert scale anchored at “not at all likely” and “very likely”), and (2) “How early would you ideally like to receive the COVID-19 vaccine?” (asked of respondents scoring ≥3 on the first item). The survey also included items asking about reasons to get, and to not get, vaccinated. Respondents self-identified race/ethnicity.

A total of 3,161 of 3,935 (80.3%) participants in the general population cohort and 1,803 of 2,501 (72.1%) participants in the medical center employee cohort responded to the vaccine survey. Although a higher proportion of medical center employees than members of the general population reported likeliness of vaccine uptake, racial/ethnic differences in likeliness were comparable in both cohorts. In the medical center cohort, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% CI) of likeliness of vaccine uptake relative to White respondents was 0.24 (0.10-0.60) for Black respondents, 0.50 (0.31-0.79) for Latinx respondents, 0.37 (0.27-0.51) for Asian respondents, 0.28 (0.15-0.53) for respondents of other races, and 0.49 (0.29-0.82) for respondents of multiple races. In the general population cohort, the aOR (95% CI) relative to White respondents was 0.29 (0.20-0.43) for Black respondents, 0.55 (0.43-0.71) for Latinx respondents, 0.57 (0.47-0.70) for Asian respondents, 0.62 (0.38-1.02) for respondents of other races, and 0.65 (0.46-0.92) for respondents of multiple races. Ratings of reasons to get vaccinated were similar across racial/ethnic groups, but Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents to endorse reasons to not get vaccinated, especially less confidence in the vaccine preventing COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI] for Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents having low confidence relative to White respondents, 2.39 [1.58-3.61], 2.04 [1.58-2.64], and 1.85 [1.51-2.27], respectively); less trust in companies making the vaccine (aOR [95% CI] for Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents having low trust relative to White respondents, 3.08 [2.00-4.73], 1.85 [1.38-2.48], and 1.34 [1.04-1.72], respectively); and more worry that government rushed the approval process (aOR [95% CI] for Black, Latinx, and Asian respondents relative to White respondents, 2.10 [1.44-3.05], 1.68 [1.34-2.10], and 1.81 [1.53-2.15], respectively).

Reference: Grumbach K, et al. Association of Race/Ethnicity With Likeliness of COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Among Health Workers and the General Population in the San Francisco Bay Area. JAMA Intern Med. Published online March 30, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.1445

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