Tool Predicts Probability of Drug-Resistant Pathogens Among Patients With Gram-Negative Infections

Lodise, et al. (2019) developed a clinical bedside tool to simultaneously estimate the probabilities of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) among hospitalized adult patients with Gram-negative infections.

Data were obtained from a retrospective observational study of the Premier Hospital that included hospitalized adult patients with a complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP), or bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Gram-negative bacteria between 2011 and 2015. Risk factors for 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP were ascertained by multivariate logistic regression, and separate models were developed for patients with community-acquired versus hospital-acquired infections for each resistance phenotype (N = 6). Models were converted to a singular user-friendly interface to estimate the probabilities of a patient having an infection due to 3GC-R, CRE, or MDRP when ≥ 1 risk factor was present.

Overall, 124,068 patients contributed to the dataset. Percentages of patients admitted for cUTI, cIAI, HAP/VAP, and BSI were 61.6, 4.6, 16.5, and 26.4%, respectively (some patients contributed > 1 infection type). Resistant infection rates were 1.90% for CRE, 12.09% for 3GC-R, and 3.91% for MDRP. A greater percentage of the resistant infections were community-acquired relative to hospital-acquired (CRE, 1.30% vs 0.62% of 1.90%; 3GC-R, 9.27% vs 3.42% of 12.09%; MDRP, 2.39% vs 1.59% of 3.91%). The most important predictors of having an 3GC-R, CRE or MDRP infection were prior number of antibiotics; infection site; infection during the previous 3 months; and hospital prevalence of 3GC-R, CRE, or MDRP. To enable application of the six predictive multivariate logistic regression models to real-world clinical practice, the researchers developed a user-friendly interface that estimates the risk of 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP simultaneously in a given patient with a Gram-negative infection based on their risk (Additional file 1).

The researchers developed a clinical prediction tool to estimate the probabilities of 3GC-R, CRE, and MDRP among hospitalized adult patients with confirmed community- and hospital-acquired Gram-negative infections. their predictive model has been implemented as a user-friendly bedside tool for use by clinicians/healthcare professionals to predict the probability of resistant infections in individual patients, to guide early appropriate therapy.

Reference: Lodise TP, et al. Development of a bedside tool to predict the probability of drug-resistant pathogens among hospitalized adult patients with gram-negative infections. BMC Infectious Diseases. Vol. 19, No. 718. 2019.

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