Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria and represent a major healthcare burden. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) strains of Enterobacterales and non-lactose fermenting pathogens further complicate treatment approaches.
Shields, et al. (2021) conducted a retrospective analysis of the U.S. Premier Healthcare Database (2014–2019) in hospitalized adults with a UTI to estimate the healthcare burden of Gram-negative CR UTIs among patients with or without concurrent bacteremia.
Among the 47,496 patients with UTI analyzed, CR infections were present in 2076 (4.4%). Bacteremia was present in 24.5% of all UTI patients, and 1.7% of these were caused by a CR pathogen. The most frequent CR pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (49.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.2%). Patients with CR infections had a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS) (median [range] 8 [5–12] days vs 6 [4–10] days, P < 0.001), were less likely to be discharged home (38.4% vs 51.0%, P < 0.001), had a higher readmission rate (22.6% vs 13.5%, P < 0.001), and had greater LOS-associated charges (mean US$ 91,752 vs US$ 66,011, P < 0.001) than patients with carbapenem-susceptible (CS) infections, respectively. The impact of CR pathogens was greater in patients with bacteremia (or urosepsis) and these CR urosepsis patients had a significantly higher rate of mortality than those with CS urosepsis (10.5% vs 6.0%, P < 0.001).
Among hospitalized patients with UTIs, the presence of a CR organism and bacteremia increased the burden of disease, with worse outcomes and higher hospitalization charges than disease associated with CS pathogens and those without bacteremia.
Reference: Shields RK, et al. Burden of illness in US hospitals due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative urinary tract infections in patients with or without bacteremia. BMC Infectious Diseases. Vol. 21, article number 572. 2021.